Although the Mamoni Valley was once heavily forested, large areas of forest have been cleared for ranching and farming. The preserve is now stewarding the recovery of large sections of deforested land as they slowly return to their prior forested state. The preserve also includes tracts of original primary forest, which are crucial sources of the plants, animals, fungi,
MVP sits right in the middle of the narrowest point in the Americas, which makes it a crucial and fragile ecological corridor for many species of wildlife, including large cats like Jaguar, Puma, and Ocelot. Ensuring that this biological corridor remains intact is critical for the long-term stability of these species and many others.
The valley shelters several charismatic and beautiful species which are threatened, near threatened, or endangered, including the iconic Jaguar and the jewel of the valley, the critically endangered Limosa Harlequin Toad (Atelopus limosus).